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This page was last edited on 1 May , at Privacy policy About eLinux. Contents 1 Now shipping to customers 2 About 2. Buying Guide Where can I get one and for how much? This price excludes local taxes and shipping. You can find out which peripherals and such are tested to work with the Pi in the Verified Peripherals section.

Ensure you have all the equipment you need to go with your Raspberry Pi. Become familiar with the board layout and connect it ready for power up. If you have not been provided with a pre-setup SD card you will need to prepare one with your chosen Operating System distribution If you are not using a HDMI monitor you may need to set up the correct video mode by editing the RPiconfig text file on the SD-card.

Note: On the Debian OS after you log in you need to type startx at the prompt to get a graphic desktop. Particularly after first boot its important to do a clean shutdown with the command sudo halt Having problems?

Try the Troubleshooting page. Beginners Guide You’ve just got your new Raspberry Pi device – what now? The RPi can be plugged into a suitable TV or monitor. The unit will support a range of devices, peripherals and accessories. The Foundation has launched a camera module with a 5MPixel sensor capable of capturing video at 30fps at p Serial port connection instructions GPIO interface circuits for connecting switches, relays, etc For more advanced issues including see Advanced Setup.

See Software for an overview, and OS Distributions for supported operating system and pre-configured ‘images’. Many unofficial distributions are available on the Distributions page. Advice is also available if you want to compile a kernel , boot from the network using U-Boot , or test the Pi’s performance.

The Raspberry Pi supports a wide range of programming languages , with many tutorials available. The cross hairs or drawing cursor which may be at any position on the screen depending on whether the user has touched the mouse or not. The view cube at the top right corner. This is very useful in 3D drawing because it facilitates viewing the object from multiple directions. Quick Access toolbar This includes the basic file-handling functions that you find in virtually all windows application programs.

It occurs at the immediate right of the application menu. It carries such functions as workspace switching and title, new file, open file, save and undo among others. If you are online type a query there in case you get stuck. In the lower-left corner of the drawing area, you see an L-shaped arrow. This is the UCS icon, which tells you your orientation in the drawing.

This icon becomes helpful as you start to work with complex 2D drawings and 3D models. The X and Y arrows indicate the X- and Y-axes of your drawing. Command Window. As you type in commands on the command line, or pick commands on the ribbon panels, a message is displayed on the command window telling you what to do next.

When you issue any command it may also display a list of options related to that command. By so doing it prompts you on your next move. Thus it is also known as the command prompt. The command window and the ribbon complement each other i. However the command prompts that appear on the command window prevent the user from getting confused. To the extreme left it carries the coordinate readout which indicates to the user the current position of the cursor.

Towards the right next to the coordinate readout is the drawing aids panel which carries such tools as object snap, object snap tracking, dynamic UCS and polar tracking among others. These aids assist the user in managing snap and tracking actions. They are activated or deactivated by switching them on or off respectively. To the extreme right of the status bar we find another panel which contains the model and layout tabs, annotation scale and workspace switching tool gear wheel icon among others.

You can switch between workspaces by using the Workspace Switching Tool. You can also customize the workspace the way you want and then save it. It will be appearing on the list of workspaces during switching and you can select it as an option. Workspace switching tool takes the form of a gear wheel located at the bottom right hand corner of the active window.

Clicking on it produces a drop down list of other alternative workspaces. Clicking on either changes the workspace to the selected Alternatively you can switch the workspace by clicking on the downward arrow besides the name of the current workspace on the quick access toolbar. The general file handling commands include file saving, file opening, file closing and printing of drawings. You are the required to navigate through the folders in the save in slot to select the folder in which you want to save your drawing.

Type in the file name and then click save. If you modify a drawing you may wish to save it again but retaining the original template. In this case select save as from the file pull down or the application menu.

Give it a name that signifies its current status i. Click save. As with any Windows program, you can save it under its original name by click on the Save tool on the Quick Access toolbar or under a different name by choosing Save As from the Application menu, thereby creating a new file. Some will require modifications at virtually every stage. Others involve a series of iterative stages before settling on the final copy.

In these circumstances, AutoCAD offers the required flexibility as opposed to manual drawing. To keep track of all the modifications, the Save As tool is very essential. A dialogue box appears asking whether to save the changes on the drawing. When a command prompts you for a point, you can use the mouse to specify a point, or you can enter a coordinate value at the command prompt.

If the dynamic input is switched you can enter coordinate values in tooltips near the cursor. Two-dimensional coordinates can be entered as either Cartesian X, Y or Polar coordinates. In 2D, you specify points on the XY plane, also called the work plane. The X value of Cartesian coordinate specifies the horizontal distance, and the Y value specifies the vertical distance. The origin point 0, 0 indicates where the two axes meet. Polar Coordinate System Polar coordinates use a distance and an angle to locate a point.

Absolute and Relative Coordinates i. Absolute coordinates Represents a specific point in the current work plane relative to the origin point 0,0. To enter an absolute coordinate, type the values as a Cartesian coordinate X,Y or Polar coordinate distance, angle. Relative coordinate A relative coordinate is a point specified with reference to the last point specified. We emphasize that it is with reference to your last specified point and not to the origin.

This is the distinguishing aspect between relative and absolute coordinates. Dynamic Input When dynamic input is on, tooltips display information near the cursor as it moves.

It is called dynamic input because the information moving with the cursor is updated with the motion of the cursor. If you type the X value and press tab, the X field box displays a lock icon, The Y field is active and you can enter its value.

This procedure applies to any other set of fields for instance distance and angle. Overview When drawing in both 2D and 3D, you may wish to: a. Get a closer look magnify your drawing. View hidden details c. Bring the whole drawing into focus. View the hidden details of your 3D drawing. For a, b and c use the zoom and pan tools as follows: i.

Zoom in to magnify and zoom out to minimize the size. Zooming out enables you to see the details that are currently spilt out of the screen or make the object smaller in readiness to add details. The pan tool allows you to drag your drawing to a convenient location on the screen. For d use the orbit tool.

It is the tool that enables you to view the objects in your drawing from different angles. It is very essential, when drawing in 3D. Accessing the tools A. Zoom a. To zoom a view with a single click. Display a wheel. Right-click the wheel and click Steering Wheel Settings.

Click OK. Click the Zoom wedge. The magnification of the model is increased and you are zoomed in closer to the model.

If you hold down the Shift key while clicking the Click Close to exit the wheel. To zoom a view in and out by dragging. Click and hold down the Zoom wedge.

The cursor changes to the Zoom cursor. Drag vertically to zoom in or out. Release the button on your mouse to return to the wheel. NB: The mouse wheel is a very convenient way of zooming in and out. Pan a. To pan the drawing with the pan tool. Click and hold the Pan wedge.

The cursor changes to the Pan cursor. Drag to reposition the model. Release the button on your pointing device to return to the wheel.

To pan using the middle mouse button or the mouse wheel. Press and hold down the scroll wheel or middle button. Release the wheel or button on your mouse. Orbit i. Display one of the View Object or Full Navigation wheels. Click and hold down the Orbit wedge. The cursor changes to the Orbit cursor. Drag to rotate the model. Release the button on your mouse. It is recommended that you save these settings to your drawing template files to reduce your setup time when you start a new drawing.

The Drawing Units dialog box is displayed. Enter -units at the Command prompt to display options. Think of it as the size of your drawing area. Then you can define drawing Type 0,0 as lower left corner then type or click the coordinate for upper right corner based on the units which is in Inches or mm. These devices invoke AutoCAD commands. What is a command? Whenever you invoke a command, by either typing it or selecting a menu option or tool, AutoCAD responds by presenting messages to you in the Command Window and the Dynamic Input display or by displaying a dialogue box.

By right clicking during the drawing process, a context-sensitive short cut menu is displayed; i. Command tools. Move the arrow cursor to the Line tool and rest it there. Do not click yet. Hold it there for a little while and then for a longer while.

You will see two tool tips. The first tip gives you the tool tip name and the keyboard command associated with the tool. The second tip gives a brief explanation of how to use the tool. A shader defines how light will react to our object. Before continuing on to the next step, I highly recommend you watch the following video tutorials so that you can quickly get an understanding of how it all works: 1.

Intro to Cycles 2. Texturing in Cycles 3. Another Intro to Cycles Ready to make a new material? If you turn it to red, the monkey will turn red accordingly. It does not reflect the light directly, but rather scatters or diffuses the rays that hit it. You can either open a new image from your computer with the Open button, or choose an existing texture with the picture icon directly to the left of that.

For reflections, we need a glossy shader. Plug the diffuse and glossy into the mix shader, and connect the mix shader to the Material Output to get the following result: blenderhd. Remember that flat or smooth shading can be set in the toolbar. A value of 0 is perfectly reflective while a value of 1 is very diffused. I only want the glossy shader to appear around the edges, so I will add a Layer Weight node and connect the Fresnel wondering what the Fresnel Effect is?

Realistic Cycles Materials 2. Shading the Pancake Hobo 3. Cycles Shader Encyclopedia 4. Cycles Render Settings Explained 5. Realistic Texturing 6. Cycles Encyclopedia ebook 7. Shader Forge blenderhd. Animation is what makes our creations look alive! In 3D animation, we only need to set the important frames called keyframes , and the software will automatically calculate the in-betweens. What a time saver! This will bring up a list of attributes that can be keyframed.

You can store all three with the LocRotScale keyframe. You can see that our keyframe is represented by a yellow tick mark on frame 1.

If you play using the play button or scrub through the timeline, our cube is now moving! The single arrow play button will play through the animation at normal speed, the double arrows will jump between keyframes, and the double arrows hitting the wall will jump to the end or beginning. You can specify which type of data you would like stored in the keying set dropdown dropup?

Choose rotation. Since they keying set is set to rotation only, Blender knows to only insert a rotation keyframe. Almost any setting in Blender can be animated! This signifies that they are animated. If they are a bright yellow-green, then they have a keyframe on the current key. Notice how all three rotation axes X,Y, and Z are animated, even though I only needed it to be rotated on the X.

Now increase the Z value to 5 notice how the transform properties are local on frame and insert another single keyframe. The below images show the change between frame 1 and It will automatically insert any change you make.

You can activate auto-keying by toggling the red record button to the left of the keying sets. The second key toggle that appears when auto- keying is turned on will allow you to only auto-key changes that are part of your active keying set like rotation, scale, etc…. With auto-keying on, go to frame 50 and drag the cube upwards.

Blender will automatically add a location keyframe for you! Animation Fundamentals 2. These tutorials will guide you through the basics: Particles 1. Logo Dissolve 2. Fluid Particles 3. Chain Mail 4. Detailing Destruction 5. Boids Particles 6. Quick Intro 2. Falling Buttons 3. Chain Physics 4. Fracturing Objects 5.

Shattering Glass Cloth 1. Cloth for Arch-Viz 2. Modelling with Cloth blenderhd. Intro to Fire 2. Working with Obstacles 3. Explosions 4. Inkdrop Effect 5. Rocket with Smoke Trail 6. Car Drift 7. Tornado Fluids 1.

Fluid Sim Introduction 2. Coffee Cup Shatter 3. Oceans with Foam blenderhd. Cameras Unlike some other 3D programs, Blender always renders through the active camera object.

If you have multiple cameras, the active camera is the one whose triangle is filled in. The triangle also serves to signify which direction the camera is facing.

You can also set the active camera from the Scene tab in the Properties window: blenderhd. If you would like to emulate a specific camera such as a Red Epic , Blender has a number of presets available. The Output panel, right below Dimensions, is where you can specify an output path and file type. The Output panel only applies to rendering animations and not images. When rendering an animation, be sure to either set your file format to a movie type H.

If you choose a movie format, an additional Encoding panel appears below in which you can set the codecs for video and audio. If you have no audio codec selected, no audio will be outputted. Below these panels are render settings panels that relate to whichever render engine you are using most likely Blender Render or Cycles.

For an explanation of Cycles render settings, watch this free tutorial. This is called post-processing or compositing, and can be done within Blender as well. Intro to Compositing 2. Intro to Color Correction 3. Intro to Node Groups 4. Compositing Cycles Passes 5. Compositing and Tracking a Hidden Safe blenderhd. Making great art takes practice and hard work, just like anything else. You can now find video tutorials for Blender Basics on line for each chapter. This document may be reproduced in whole or in part without permission from the author.

Feel free to use this manual for any and all educational applications. You may not bundle this tutorial with any software or documentation that is intended for commercial applications marketing for a profit without expressed written approval from the author.

Inquiries and comments can be directed to jchronister cdschools. Information regarding the Blender program and development can be found at www. Blender users can also find information on how to use the program at www. Daily Blender news and tutorial links can be found at www.

Blender is fully functional. It works as an open-sourced, community development program where people from around the world contribute to its success. To establish services for active users and developers of Blender. To give the worldwide Internet community access to 3D technology in general, with Blender as a core. Blender website blender. What do you teach in the time you have to teach? This tutorial book is designed to get you up and running in the basics of creating objects and scenes and animating.

All rendering and animation programs have a tough learning curve. After a few weeks, things get easier. This tutorial has been developed to be used in conjunction with daily lesson planning and demonstrations. Because of this, some areas of Blender have not been described as fully as they could be. These sites give you access to help forums and tutorials. There are literally thousands of Blender users world-wide that browse the forums to give and get advice. Make use of that vast knowledge base!

Version Information: The current release at the time of this printing is version 2. Since Blender is developed by a worldwide pool of individuals giving freely of their time, releases happen often. New for this edition: While most of the activities here use the classic render engine due to classroom time constraints cycles rendering is very time intensive , a unit and more has been added for the cycles render engine.

There are also new challenge tasks for those students that are looking for extra, or alternate, activities.

Reference to education standards, reflective writing, motion tracking, and 3D printing have also been added. Features like materials, lighting, oversampling and shadows control the effects and quality of the rendering. The more of these features you add, the more realistic your scene become, but also lengthens rendering times. Materials and Textures: You can control the way an object appears by applying color and textures. Materials provide realism with added effects. You an control glossiness specular , self-emitting lighting characteristics, transparency and pattern repetition.

Ray-tracing can provide reflection mirror and refraction transparency effects. Textures can be made from any scanned photograph or drawn object in an image-editing or painting-type program. Images in almost any format jpg, bitmap, png can be used.

Blender also has many built-in texture generators that can simulate a variety of surface characteristics such as wood, marble, clouds, waves and surface roughness. Lighting: Lighting provides the realism to your scene through reflections and shadows. You can control the type of light, intensity and color. Illumination distances can also be set. Cameras: Your camera is your point-of-view for the scene. Just like a real camera, you can control lens length to achieve close-ups or wide angles.

Clipping distance can also be set to control how far and near the camera sees. Depth-of-field can be controlled using nodes. The quality of your movie is controlled by all of the above mentioned features including frames per second fps , output size, file type and compression.

The most common method of animation is called key-framing. Key frames are created at various points in the animation while the computer generates all of the transition frames between the two keys.

Basic animation options include changing size, rotation and location of objects. The length in time can be calculated from these. Creating Keys: A key is placed at the beginning and end of a desired move, size change or rotation of an object. Think in terms of how long you want a change to occur and relate it to your fps. For example, if you want an object to move from point A to point B in 2 seconds and you have 30 fps, place 2 keys 60 frames apart.

Following Paths and Objects: In most animation programs, a camera can follow a path or object or both as it moves. This feature saves a lot of animation time and reduces the number of keys needed.

This type of file plays easily on most media players and at a high quality. Depending on how you plan to use your movie i. Different formats also allow you to adjust the quality settings. Rendering sizes: Animations are saved in a measurement unit called a pixel. Your computer and TV screens display images as small dots. The more dots, or pixels, per inch, the higher the resolution. Modern displays and TVs use square pixels, but older TV sets used rectangular pixels. This made it somewhat more difficult to render images because the output from 3D animation programs needed to be compressed into a non-square ratio format.

Since most TVs have been replaced by modern flat screens, we can begin to get away from these older, confusing ratios and work with pixel ratios. The older TV standard of ratio size or the newer TV and film ratio size. This decision will most likely be controlled by the type of result you need and how much time you have to render the project.

Until recently, we have always worked with DVD standard definition renderings in the classroom. While high definition renderings can produce better projects, the cost in rendering times would make it almost impossible for us to complete projects in the classroom during the school day, even with the small render farm we have in the lab. Standard definition still looks great played back on modern TVs and renders at a fraction of the time of higher HD. Here are the frame sizes for each type of render: Real-Time Animation and Physics: Blender uses the Bullet physics engine to make objects react in your scene like they would in real life.

The Bullet physics engine was used in movies like to create all of the realistic-looking animations of falling and reacting objects. Real-time animation allows you to add physical properties to your objects and use the keyboard and other features to control them. You can create actors, change masses, control dampening friction , set force and torque in x, y, and z planes and create relationships with other objects within the scene. With time and practice, interesting 3D games, animations, and real-time architectural walk-throughs can be created.

Blender allows you to use the physics engine to create animation tracks. You can now use the physics to create realistic falling, rolling, etc. Please visit the Blender.

TAB key- Toggles between edit mode vertex editing and object select mode. With each press, one step will be undone up to 32 steps possible by default.

If in edit mode, it will only undo editing steps on the selected object. Space Bar- Brings up a search window to find basic commands. Your cursor must be in that window for it to play. Proportional editing now also works in object mode. In edit mode, works the same to select multiple vertices.

Press LMB to select, press wheel to deselect. Number Pad- Controls your views. Shift Key- Hold down the shift key to make multiple selections with the right mouse button. Arrow Keys-Used to advance frames in animation. In object mode, pressing P will cause you to enter into the game real-time mode. Press Esc to exit game mode. Hit Ctrl P.

To clear a relationship, do the same except hit Alt P. Good for copying materials and other object data from one object to other objects. While holding the Shift key, select all the objects with the one containing the material or other data last.

You can only select vertices at a time to make a face. By selecting 2 verticies and pressing F will close shape. Objects can be animated with basic Rotation, Location and Size keys and combinations there of.

For example, text can be converted into a mesh for other transform options. Create a mesh with vertices at the joint locations, then create an armature string within it.

You can then animate in Pose Mode. Ctrl-Tab- Puts you into Pose mode for manipulating armatures. When inserting other Blender files or objects into another scene, use the APPEND option from the file menu and select the appropriate options. Multiple objects can be selected with Shift-Right mouse button. Multiple Viewports- To create multiple viewports, move your cursor to the upper-right corner of an existing viewport. To join areas, repeat the process. If you tried Blender before the interface improvements in version 2.

The cube is a basic mesh object to give you something to look at, a lamp to illuminate the scene, and a camera to show the scene. Older versions of Blender may open with different scenes, but the idea stays the same. The 3D cursor in the middle of the cube is used to locate where new items will be placed. Along with familiar pull-down menus like other programs, you have multiple viewports windows on the screen serving different purposes.

We will talk about these later and how they can be changed. Try it with the cube and change layers. To turn that layer visible, click LMB on that button. Layers containing objects will display a dot.

Viewport Window Types Blender has a variety of different viewport, or window, types and every viewport can be set to any type. For example, your initial screen has 5 viewports see previous page , the top one with the tool bars Information viewport , the 3D viewport, and the bottom Timeline window. On the right, you have the Outliner and Properties viewport. The button to change viewport types is in the upper or lower left corner of each window.

There are a lot of viewport types. They can be accessed from the top pull-down menu area. This is where you can customize Blender to react to your particular needs. RoboDude Says: Be careful to only use this setting at the beginning of a drawing session and on your own personal machine not school computers, unless the instructor approves. If a drawing is open at the time, that drawing will automatically open every time you use Blender.

It will become the default scene and replace the cube, lamp and camera basic setup! Blender works well using the default settings, but there are several things you may want to change for your own use to stream line your work flow or react better for your computer. By looking at the tabs across the top of the window, you can select options in several areas.

If this isn’t enough, add more. Add-Ons Tab- There are some great add-ons included. Themes Tab- This is where you can change the appearance of everything! File Tab- If you save sounds, textures, etc. System Tab- If you need to make adjustments to sound and memory or game setting, they can be done here.

DXF, and. STL files. These are generic file interchange extensions that most programs can work with, as well as 3D printers. RoboDude Says: Be careful to save your work often! Like most programs, Blender will give you a basic warning to save your work when exiting the program, but that is all- it will just close, losing any work you may not have saved.

The Save Command: When you first start working with Blender, it seems almost impossible to figure out how to save your work. Also, every time you save over an existing file, your previous save becomes a back-up file and is saved with a new extension. This always gives you a back-up if a problem occurs. While in Append, you need to navigate to the Blender file you wish to insert from, then select what you want to append into the open file.

You can append anything from cameras, lights meshes, materials, textures, scenes and objects. For most purposes, use the Object option. By appending objects, any materials, textures and animations that are linked to that object will automatically come in with it.

The Link option allows you to link to another Blender file rather than inserting it into the open file and also found in the File menu. This option allows for changes to the linked file that will be automatically updated when the other file is opened.

Textures and sounds are not automatically included in your Blender file in order to keep the file size down. Every time your file opens, it looks for the textures and sounds and places them into your model. If you pack data, those files are included with the. You can also unpack data to bring the file size back down. The most popular used are:. Just about every 3D printing slicing program will accept.

A unit on processing 3D printer files appears toward the end of this book. DXF files- A very popular file format for exporting and sharing.

This will vary depending on the program you are using. You will simply need to use the Import command in the File pull-down menu. Now you need to find the object s you just inserted. Depending on how that object was drawn, it may need to be re-sized or rotated. You should be able to find a format in the list that will work with your other programs. There may be an add-on script written for your file type, but not turned on.

It would be nice to be able to set Blender so it opens with these setting turned on by default every time. The Alt-Left button will act like a mouse wheel. This will make the buttons ,0 act like the number pad buttons, useful in the next chapter. Every time you now launch Blender, these setting should now be the defaults.

If the interface is difficult to navigate, it can frustrate users and drive them to find an alternate program. While other 3D modeling and animation programs may use catchy graphic icons and ribbon menus for operations, Blender tends to stick to basic text buttons and menus. In terms of learning a new program, which type of layout do you feel may be easier to use? Explain your answer. In terms of being quick and easy to use for the seasoned professional, which type of layout do you feel may be easier to use?

By looking at website screenshots and descriptions, how does Blender compare with their interface? Name at least 3 things that appear similar and 3 things that appear different. Compare Blender’s features to the same program you selected in 3 by looking at feature lists on each program’s website.

How do they compare in features and price? Before you can work in 3D space, you should have some skills in 2D drawing and layout. Moving around in the 3D window is controlled by the mouse and the keyboard number pad NOT the numbers across the top of the keyboard- these change layers. Think of a standard 3-view orthographic drawing- top, front and right side views.

These views match up with the number pad 7,1 and 3 keys look at their arrangement on the keyboard- just like the views.

Put your cursor in the 3D window and try typing those numbers. By default, the camera is represented by a single line, representing the edge of what is rendered and shaded to the outside. You also have the option of turning on an additional dashed line box to represent a Title Safe box helpful in planning. Changing these settings will be discussed in a later chapter. You will also notice a small note in the upper-left corner of the viewport telling you the view name and if it orthographic or perspective.

The number pad 5 key will always toggle you between perspective and orthographic views. The number pad arrow keys 2,4,6,8 will rotate you around in 3D space. The mouse serves a number of functions. Wherever the 3D cursor is located is where the next item you create will be placed.

The 3D cursor serves other purposes that we will discuss later. The mouse wheel serves 2 purposes. Holding down the mouse wheel will let you rotate the view.

Holding down Shift and Mouse Wheel will let you pan around on the screen. RoboDude Says: Practice using these controls before moving on to other lessons.

Without getting a grasp on working in 3D space, you will have a difficult time creating and modifying objects. We’re still not really able to create anything yet, but soon. You have a default screen with several viewports. You may have noticed that along with the Tool Shelf on the left side, you can also have a Transform panel on the right of your viewport.

These are definitely useful panels as you will soon see, but they take up a lot of space. So how do you bring them back out when you need them?

This will open the panels up again pressing either button a 2 nd time will close the panel up. Accessing those buttons can be done by holding down your mouse wheel like it’s a button and using it to pan left-to-right.

The same can be done to access the panels below the buttons. Panels can also be minimized and maximized to take up less space by clicking on the small triangles found on each.

Most rendering and animations programs allow for multiple viewports along with graphical views of various data. Blender allows the same. Remember that Blender starts with 5 viewports, but only one 3D View window discussed on pages and You can change the size of any of these windows by using the LMB and dragging on the line between the viewports. In order to split a viewport, move your cursor over the small triangle in the upper right corner of the 3D View Window. Joining viewports together works the same way.

Click on the triangle and drag over the viewport you wish to remove. I like to traditionally work with 2 views like the example shown below. Windows can also be split along a vertical line. Some 3D programs traditionally give you 4 viewports that are set-up as front, top, right side, and perspective or camera views. Basically, it is up to what you want to work with. Get use to working with the principle views top, front, side in orthographic mode when locating the 3D cursor.

You will usually need to check the location of the cursor in at least 2 views when placing objects. New to Blender 2. Practice is the key. Blender uses the number pad and mouse to control your 3D views and location. If you were asked to re-design the commands for moving in 3D space, would you use the same configuration, or develop something different? How does working in 3D space relate to math? Where have you ever used the concepts of X,Y, and Z in a math course?

Research GPS on the internet. How does GPS work so that it can determine where you are on a map? In this chapter we will talk about creating basic shapes and using modifiers to form them. Blender has a lot of different object types. Right now we will only discuss Meshes.

Call it Sculpture. Since there a variety of operating system and saving structures, you may need to set up folders as needed. RoboDude Asks: Why do I keep losing my work? Since Blender’s file interface differs from most other programs, it can be easy to lose track of where you are saving files and not saving often enough. Remember to always save your work often! Select Add, then Mesh and select UV Sphere my mesh menu may display more items than your menu due to selecting different add-ons in the preferences menu.

You can change these by dragging the mouse in the block or by clicking in the box to type. Your sphere will change to reflect your settings. You can also adjust some other settings there. When you place an object in Blender, it comes into the scene in Object Mode.

Edit mode is intended for modifying the shape of the object by selecting vertices on the object. Object mode affects the object as a whole. The Tab button toggles you between the two. You can also see and change your mode at the bottom of the viewport. After inserting an object into your scene, always make sure you’re in Object Mode. Otherwise, the next object you create will be joined to that mesh!

Notice that there are a few more modes than just Edit and Object. Some of these will be discussed in later chapters. Mesh Types When pressing the space bar and choosing to add a mesh, you will notice several mesh types often called primitives available.

More can be added through Add-Ons in the User Preferences menu. They are: Plane- A simple two-dimensional shape.

Can be sub divided and used with proportional vertex editing to make nice hilly terrain or shaped. Cube- Basic 3D shape. Nice object to start with to shape into rectangles and other shapes. UV Sphere- A sphere generated with rings and segments, like the latitude and longitude of the earth. Icosphere- A sphere generated with triangular shapes.


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